How do major websites take care of the weight of tens of thousands and thousands of traffic a day?
One of the unexpected matters approximately Web websites is that, in sure cases, a totally small gadget can take care of a big range of traffic. For example, believe that you have an easy Webpage containing some static pages, in this case, the “static” approach is that everyone sees the identical model of any web page after they view it). If you took an ordinary 500MHz Celeron gadget strolling Windows NT or Linux, loaded the Apache Web server on it, and linked this gadget to the Internet with a T3 line, you may take care of masses of hundreds of traffic in step with day. Many ISPs will hire you for a dedicated-gadget configuration like this for $1,000 or much less in steps per month. This configuration will paintings excellent unless:
You want to deal with tens of thousands and thousands of traffic in step with day. The unmarried gadget fails. The pages are extraordinarily big or complicated. The pages want to extrude dynamically on an in step with-consumer basis. Any back-cease processing wishes to be executed to create the contents of the web page or to procedure a request at the web page. Since a maximum of the big Web websites meet all of those conditions, they want considerably large infrastructures.
There are 3 principal techniques for managing weight:
- The web page can spend money on an unmarried big gadget with plenty of processing power, memory, disk area, and redundancy.
- The web page can distribute the weight throughout some machines.
- The webpage can use a few mixtures of the primary options.
When you go to a 메이저사이트that has a distinctive URL each time you go then you recognize that the webpage is the usage of the second method on the front cease. Typically, the webpage could have an array of stand-on machines which might be every strolling Web server software. They all have to get admission to the same replica of the pages for the web page.
The incoming requests for pages are unfolded throughout all the machines in certainly considered one among ways:
- The Domain Name Server (DNS) for the webpage can distribute the weight. DNS is an Internet provider that interprets 메이저사이트domains into IP addresses. Each time a request is made for the Web server, DNS rotates via the to be had IP addresses roundly to proportion the weight. The person servers might have not an unusual place get admission to the identical set of Web pages for the webpage.
- Load balancing switches can distribute the weight. All requests for the Web page arrive at a gadget that then passes the request to one of them to be had servers. The transfer can discover from the servers which one is least loaded, so they all are doing an identical quantity of paintings. This is the method that How Stuff Works makes use of with its servers. The load balancer spreads the weight amongst 3 distinctive Web servers. One of the 3 can fail without any impact on the webpage.
- The gain of this redundant method is that the failure of anybody gadget does now no longer purpose a problem the opposite machines select out the weight. It is likewise smooth to feature potential incrementally. The downside is that those machines will nevertheless have to speak to a few types of centralized databases if there may be any transaction processing going on.
Microsoft’s TerraServer takes the “unmarried big gadget” method. TerraServer shops numerous terabytes of satellite tv for pc imagery records and handles tens of thousands and thousands of requests for this information. The webpage makes use of big enterprise-magnificence machines to deal with the weight. For example, an unmarried Digital Alpha Server 8400 used at TerraServer has 8 440 MHz 64-bit processors and 10 GB of blunders checked and corrected RAM. See the generation description for a few magnificent specifications!
The following links will assist you to learn more:
- W3C – The World Wide Web Consortium
- MS Windows NT Load Balancing Service Whitepaper
- Review: Load Balancers
- IBM Redbook: Load-Balancing Internet Servers
- Load Sharing with DNS
- Load Balancing and Fault Tolerance: How it Works
- Switches Help Share the Load
- Paper: Distributed Cooperative Web Servers
- How Web Servers Work
- How Internet Infrastructure Works